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In 1777, British troops occupied Philadelphia during the American Revolution.

In 1789 Thomas Jefferson was confirmed by the Senate as the first US Secretary of State.

In 1914 the Federal Trade Commission was established.

The very first presidential debate took place in 1960 when Democrat John F. Kennedy and Republican Richard M. Nixon faced each other in front of a Chicago national television audience.

In 1986, William H. Rehnquist was sworn in as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States, while Antonin Scalia joined the Supreme Court as the 103rd member.

In 1990, the Motion Picture Association of America announced that it had created a new rating, NC-17, to replace the X-rating.

In 1991, four men and four women embarked on a two-year residency in a locked structure in Oracle, Arizona called Biosphere 2. (They emerged from Biosphere that day in 1993.)

In 1996, President Clinton signed law providing two days of hospitalization for new mothers and their babies.

In 2005 Army Pfc. Lynndie England was convicted by a military jury in Fort Hood, Texas, in six out of seven cases related to the Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal. (England was sentenced to three years in prison; she served half that time.)

Today’s birthdays:

Former baseball all-star Bobby Shantz is 96. Actor Kent McCord is 79. Singer Olivia Newton-John is 73. Country singer Carlene Carter is 66. Actress Linda Hamilton is 65. R&B singer Cindy Herron is (En Vogue) 60. Actress Melissa Sue Anderson is 59. Contemporary Christian guitarist Jody Davis (Newsboys) is 54. Actor Jim Caviezel is 53. Jazz musician Nicholas Payton is 48. Actor Mark Famiglietti is 42. Tennis player Serena Williams is 40. Die Singer / songwriter Ant Clemons is 30.

Associated press

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